Immune System NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE/Innate defenses:
Name some infectious agents and the diseases caused by them;
·The ability of the body to protect itself from damage or disease is called.
·The resistance that provides defense mechanism against a range of pathogens in a general way is called
·The resistance that provides defense mechanism against a specific pathogen by specialized lymphocytes is called ·
The system of the body responsible for specific resistance is the _________ system.
·Body’s first line of defense functions to__________________ .
·First line of defense is provided by the and the_________________.
·Body’s second line of defense works after the _ ______ have gained entry into the body.
· ____________________________ are chemicals released by virus infected cells.
Interferons stimulate the neighboring cells to release _________ that inhibit viral production.
·Complement is a group of____________________________ .
·The infected and abnormal cells of the body are destroyed by______________________.
·Briefly describe the five steps involved in phagocytosis:
The most common type of WBCs involved in phagocytosis are _______________.
·Neutrophils leave the blood and migrate to the infected area attracted by the chemicals released from the _______________________.
· Macrophages are that leave blood, enter tissues of the body and then in size.
· Some macrophages move around in the body are therefore called, whereas others remain fixed and are called.
·What is the inflammatory response?·
Symptoms of local inflammation include: , , , & .
·An injury to the WBCs, basophils and mast cells causes the release of which triggers vasodilation.
·What is immunity?
·Innate immunity is also called
·Adaptive immunity is also called
·Specificity and memory are characteristics of _
·What is specificity?
·What is memory?
·The WBCs involved in the specific resistance are the _________________
·Two main types of lymphocytes are. and
· The lymphocytes are formed initially in the .
Following this some lymphocytes stay in the bone marrow to mature and differentiate, and are therefore called .
Others migrate to the thymus gland, to mature and differentiate and are therefore called.
·Lymphocytes recognize antigens with the help of specialized membrane bound proteins called .
·What are antigens?
·What are haptens?
·Antigens which are not produced in the body are called _____ whereas those made by the body and capable of triggering an immune response are called .
·The primary lymphatic organs are the sites where form and mature. e.g. of primary lymphatic organs are
·The secondary lymphatic organs and tissues are the sites where _, e.g. include the _______________________________________________________________.
·The portion of an antigen recognized by a lymphocyte is called: .
·Cell mediated Immunity works best against pathogens and antibody mediated immunity works best against ___________ pathogens.
·Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins on the surfaces of cells called.
·MHC Class I Molecules are found on nucleated cells and function to.
·MHC Class II Molecules are found on the surface of which include , and .
·Briefly describe the processing of exogenous antigens by the antigen presenting cells: ·What are cytokines?
Briefly describe their role in the specific immunity:
Cell mediated immunity·Cell mediated immunity is due to lymphocytes and is most affective against_________________.
·Activation of T cells is regulated by:
·Describe the steps involved in Cell mediated Immunity·
Name the different types of T cells and briefly describe their function/s:
·How does the perforin released from cytotoxic T cells work?
Humoral or Antibody Mediated Immunity
·Antibody-Mediated Immunity is most effective against ________________________·Antigens activate specific B cells which differentiate into cells and cells· Plasma cell secrete which are released in the and inactivate the foreign antigens.
·Briefly describe the clonal selection process.
·Antibodies are also known as
·Each antibody is a shaped molecule, composed of two and two chains.
·Where is the variable region?
·The variable region is responsible for?
·What is the constant region responsible for?
·Name the 5 principal classes of antibodies and briefly describe their functions:
·What are monoclonal vs poly clonal antibodies?
·Describe some applications of monoclonal antibodies:
·Primary immune system response is seen after the to an antigen and results in proliferation of .·Secondary immune response occurs when·
Secondary response is and than the primary immune system response.
·Secondary immune response is due to ___________________________________.
Types of Immunity:
·Differentiate between active and passive immunity ?
·Differentiate between the term naturally acquired vs artificially acquired mean?
·The vaccine usually contains: Some part Dead or a live, .
·Which is longer lasting immunity, active or passive?
·Give one example of each of the following type of immunity :
Naturally acquired active immunity:
Artificially acquired active immunity:
Naturally acquired passive immunity:
Artificially acquired active immunity: