developmental theories
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According to Gottlieb (1992), despite the triumph of epigenesis over Preformationism in embryology, and the conciliatory consensus that states that both nature and nurture are important for individual development (ontogeny), there is still much preformation-like thinking in developmental theories. In order to make that explicit, he proposes a classification of developmental theories into two competing views, namely, predetermined and probabilistic epigenesis. Define these two alternative conceptions of development and provide examples to illustrate that you understand the basis for this distinction


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