2 600 Words Essays About U.S History
History – American history
kindly follow the requirements.
Chapter 19
The Vitality and Turmoil of Urban Life, 1877–1920
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Ch.19: Urban Life, 1877–1920
New environment create many changes
Cities = hope, conflict, adjustment
Esp. for “New Immigrants”
51% of Americans urban (1920)
City central to US life
Source of diversity and pluralism:
class, race, ethnicity
New sources of entertainment (vaudeville)
*
Fig. 19-CO, p. 514
“Houdini’s Escape Act.” High above Broadway and 46th Street in New York City, Harry Houdini, the world-famous immigrant-American escape artist, hangs upside down while bound in a straitjacket. Crowds watch breathlessly, wondering whether or how he will free himself. New people, bustling cities, mass entertainment, and the quest for freedom symbolized by Houdini’s act characterized American society at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth.
p. 516
I. Industrial Development
Cities = centers of industrial growth
capital
workers
consumers
Most have variety of factories
Often specialize in one product:
clothing, NYC
Shape of cities change:
earlier cities compact
sprawl start late 1800s
*
II. Mechanization of
Mass Transportation & Suburbanization
Allow middle-class and rich to:
escape congested urban core
commute for work, shopping, etc.
Fares too expensive for workers
Cable cars, 1880s; then electric streetcars
Some build elevated trains and/or subways
Electric interurban rails link nearby cities:
accelerate suburb grow
Some businesses move to suburbs
*
p. 518
Electric trolley cars and other forms of mass transit enabled middle-class people such as these women and men to reside on the urban outskirts and ride into the city center for work, shopping, and entertainment.
III. Beginnings of Urban Sprawl
Urban growth centrifugal and centripetal
Growth unplanned; guided by profit:
little attention to parks, traffic, etc.
Urban core = work zone
with sprawl, cities separate:
home and work
rich and poor
*
IV. Urban Population Growth
1870: 10 million
1920: 54 million (540% increase)
Some growth = annexing nearby areas
Biggest factor:
migration from countryside
immigration from abroad
Rural populace decline:
hurt by low crop prices and high debts
move for jobs and escape isolation
*
p. 520
Along with mass-produced consumer goods, such as clothing and household items, Sears, Roebuck and Company marketed architectural plans for middle-class housing. The “tiny house design,” published in one of the company’s catalogs, illustrates the layout and finished look of the kind of housing built on urban outskirts in the early twentieth century.
IV. Urban Population Growth (cont.)
1,000s of rural African Americans migrate seeking opportunities:
discrimination limit them to service jobs
more openings for black women than men
Many Hispanics in West migrate:
take over unskilled jobs (construction)
Most newcomers = immigrants:
26 million (1870–1920)
most go to cities
*
V. Foreign Immigration: Immigrants the Children of Capitalism
Some from Canada, Asia, Latin America
Most immigrants from Europe
Part of worldwide movement
Causes:
The Growth of world capitalism resulted in the
emergence of a worldwide market for labor
Lower entrance requirements in terms of capital ad
skills
Population pressure
Land redistribution/Concentration
Industrialization
Religious persecution
Communications and transportation revolution
*
*
David Montgomery on Global Integration in the Late 19th Century
“By the 1870s industrial society had generated distinct but interlocking geographic regions that were to remain essentially fixed until World War I. An industrial core, throbbing with manufacturing activity at continually rising levels, was roughly bounded by Chicago and St. Louis in the West; by Toronto, Glasgow, and Berlin in the North; by Warsaw, Lodz, and later Budapest (as rather isolated outposts) in the East, and by Milan, Barcelona, Richmond, and Louisville in the South. Surrounding that core, and indeed enveloping its urban outposts, lay the vast agricultural domain in which capitalist development shattered long established patterns of economic activity, without cultivating more than scattered pockets of extractive and processing industry. “
*
p. 521
Fresh off the boat and wearing homeland clothing, immigrants pose for a photograph outside the federal immigration station at Ellis Island, offshore from New York City. Situated in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island immigration officials processed millions of newcomers such as these, asking them questions about their background and examining them for health problems.
VI. The New Immigration
Earlier, most European immigrants from northern and western Europe (Map 19.2)
By 1900, shift to south and east Europe
Greater diversity in language, religion, ethnicity, and customs to USA
Foreign-born and native-born (foreign parents) = majority in many cities (Figure 19.1)
Many native-born whites (old immigrant heritage) resent “new” immigrants
*
Encountering the Color Line in the Everyday: Italians in Interwar Chicago, Thomas A. Guglielmo
“How exactly did these Italians come to believe so deeply in ‘their’ whiteness and their fundamental difference from blackness and, at other times, brownness and yellowness-especially given that these identities and categories held limited meaning (if any) prior to migration in Italy or during their early years of settlement in the United States? How did Italians come to believe that “their” whiteness gave them special access to neighborhoods, public housing projects, and even cooking classes? Since all social identities and boundaries must be learned, how exactly did this color learning take place? P. 46
Map 19-2, p. 523
Map 19.2: Sources of European-Born Population, 1900 and 1920.
In just a few decades, the proportion of European immigrants to the United States who came from northern and western Europe decreased (Ireland and Germany) or remained relatively stable (England and Scandinavia), while the proportion from eastern and southern Europe increased dramatically.
Rise of Manufacturing in Early 20th Century
migrants from Southern and Eastern Europe:
Establishment of Occupational beachheads: Garment, meatpacking, construction & transportation
Group rather than individual movement
Factories (sweatshops) in ethnic neighborhoods:
Little Italy, Lower East Side etc.
Worker solidarity –partly based on ethnic solidarity
*
Early 21st century: new economy
New migrations from Caribbean, Asia and Africa (often irregular)
Production jobs outsourced: Mexico, China, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, etc.
New jobs in retailing, personal services, etc.
Sub-contracting, casual work
Fragmentation of ethnic solidarity
Map 19-1, p. 519
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
Map 19-1a, p. 519
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
Map 19-1b, p. 519
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
VII. Geographic and Social Mobility
Newcomers cope by relying on family:
pool resources, help with jobs
Constant movement:
within city or to another city
Some find success; others keep moving
White male occupational mobility exist:
white-collar jobs
small businesses
Few rag-to-riches successes
Most rich start with affluence
*
p. 522
The Caribbean as well as Europe sent immigrants to the United States. Hopeful that they were leaving their homeland of Guadeloupe for a better life, these women were perhaps unprepared for the disadvantages they faced as blacks, foreigners, and women.
VII. Geographic and Social Mobility (cont.)
Moderate advance for some white men, esp. native-born
20% of manual workers rise to non-manual work within 10 years
Some downward mobility also occur
Esp. owners of small businesses
Little mobility:
women
Minorities
*
VII. Geographic and Social Mobility (cont.)
Acquiring property difficult:
loans = high interest with short repayment
36% of urban Americans own home (1900)
Higher than most Western nations
Gap between rich and poor widen
Possibility of mobility = safety valve
Relieve some tensions/frustrations
*
p. 525
Those who wished to Americanize immigrants believed that public schools could provide the best setting for assimilation. This 1917 poster from the Cleveland Board of Education and the Cleveland Americanization Committee used the languages most common to the new immigrants—Slovene, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, and Yiddish—as well as English, to invite newcomers to free classes where they could learn “the language of America” and “citizenship.”
VIII. Cultural Retention and Change
Peopling of cities = dynamic process
Immigrants initially live in ethnic enclaves
Try to preserve traditions
Crowding/ movement force interaction
In large cities, neighborhoods = multiethnic “urban borderlands”
White New Immigrants suffer prejudice
Less than blacks, Asians, Hispanics
*
IX. Racial Segregation and Violence
White immigrants leave enclaves over time
Not so for Afro-Americans because of racism
Segregated black ghettos develop:
churches central
tension with surrounding whites
race riots (Wilmington, Atlanta, East St. Louis)
Asians suffer segregation, violence, and discrimination (e.g., Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882)
Mexicans lose land:
whites isolate them into barrios
*
THE GREAT BLACK MIGRATION
FIRST (1815-1890)- NORTWESTERN EUROPE
English, Irish, Germans, Scandinavian
15 million
SECOND (1890-1914) SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE
Russian, Jewish, Italian, Poles,
Lithuanian, Turkish, Romanian
15 million
THIRD (1914-Present) DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF LATIN
AMERICA, ASIA, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
THREE GREAT MIGRATORY WAVES (1815-2010)
*
X. Cultural Adaptation
Diverse resources and orientations led to various rates of attainment and participation
Immigrants try to keep native language:
but learn English at school, at work
Kinship the core component of immigrant groups
Music reflect cultural interaction
Religiously, USA increase diversity
More Catholics, Jews, etc.
Some Catholics and Jews accommodate
Others resist:
Conservative vs. Reform Judaism
*
XI. Living Conditions in
Inner City
Massive influx = immense problems:
Overcrowding, disease, poverty
Some improvement overtime
Many problems remain
Biggest problem = lack of housing
High rents force 2–3 families to share 1-family tenement apartments (esp. NYC)
Tiny rooms lack windows, water, safe heat
Result = disease, vermin, filth
*
p. 529
Inner-city dwellers used not only indoor space as efficiently as possible, but also what little outdoor space was available to them. Scores of families living in this cramped block of six-story tenements in New York strung clotheslines behind the buildings. Notice that there is virtually no space between buildings—only rooms at the front and back received daylight and fresh air.
XII. Housing Reform;
New Home Technology
NY regulate new buildings; not existing structures
Jacob (Walter) Riis and Veiller advocate model tenements
Even reformers reject public housing
New systems of heat, light, and plumbing benefit upper and middle classes first
Slowly others gain access to gas, electricity, water
Rich create new private spaces in home
*
Jacob (Walter) Riis, 1849-1914
A ‘muckraking journalist’ – serve the public interest by exposing issues of corruption and unsanitary conditions
Identified that the printed word alone was not sufficient to provoke a reaction
Photography that has the direct motive to bring about positive social change
Raising awareness
Awaking consciousness of society
Photographs are direct and penetrating, will impact the viewer and their lives
Photographs employed as evidence
‘It was a loosing fight until conscious joined forces with fear and self-interest against it.’
Works by Riis, 1849-1914
1890- ‘How The Other Half Lives’
1892- ‘The Children of the Poor’
Sequel to ‘How the Other Half Lives’
1902- ‘Battle With The Slum’
Greater focus on the tenements
‘Either we wipe out the slum, or it wipes out us.’
1919 – ‘Neighbors: Life Stories of the Other Half’
Published After Riis died
XIII. Sanitation, Construction;
Urban Poverty
because of germ theory, cities improve water and sewer systems
Street paving, steel-frame construction, elevators, and steam-heat improve cities
Still, many working families poor:
seasonal nature of work
boom/bust cycles
Americans debate whether to help poor
*
p. 531
This scene, captured by a Philadelphia photographer sent to record the extent of trash that was littering city streets and sidewalks, illustrates the problems of disposal confronting inner-city, immigrant neighborhoods and the necessity for some form of public service to remove the refuse. Seemingly oblivious to the debris, the residents pose for the photographer.
p. 532
(top) As the human and horse populations of cities grew, garbage, litter, and manure became nagging inconveniences and health hazards. In 1868, street sweepers, hired to clean the streets, often consisted of crews hired by political bosses and were required to report to a supervisor for morning roll call.
(bottom) By the early 1900s, the profession of sanitary engineer became an important one to the urban environment.
XIV. Poverty Relief
Traditional belief:
poor = lazy and immoral
aid create dependence
Some reformers argue urban environment contribute:
advocate government action (safety and health laws)
origins of later Progressive movement
In late 1800s, most wealthy reject reform
*
XV. Crime and Violence
Homicides and other crimes (theft) increase
More reporting may explain growth
Nativists blame immigrants
But native-born also participate
*
XVI. Managing the City
Governments slowly address problems
Many city governments lack organization
Clean water/ waste disposal = urgent:
lack causes disease (yellow fever, typhoid)
Engineers:
purify water with filters and chlorine
improve: waste disposal
street cleaning and lighting
construction and fire protection
*
XVII. Law Enforcement
Professional police develop, post-1850
Police often exhibit:
poor training
corruption
ethnic/racial prejudice
Different groups want different kinds of law enforcement
Esp. customer-oriented crimes
*
XVIII. Political Machines
Arise from confusion of politics
Seek office for rewards (bribery, graft)
Also help urban newcomers
Machines: organizations with popular base
Boss = professional politician:
often an immigrant
broker diverse interest groups
for votes, help with jobs, food, law, etc.
*
XVIII. Political Machines (cont.)
NYC’s Tammany Hall mix personal gain with public accomplishments:
profit from control of contracts and jobs
construct vital public works
Bribes and kickbacks inflate costs
Also profit from illegal actions (gambling)
Like business leaders, bosses:
use politics for self-interest
reflect racial/ethnic bias
*
Tammany Hall, 1786-1932 ?
Tammany and other urban political machines provided often served as a rudimentary public welfare system.
The patronage Tammany Hall provided to immigrants, many of whom lived in extreme poverty and received little government assistance: food, coal, rent money or a job.
Served as a social integrator for immigrants by familiarizing them with American society and its political institutions and by helping them become naturalized citizens.
XIX. Civic Reform
Middle/upper class oppose bosses:
upset by corruption and taxes
Claim experts (city managers and city commissions) = efficient government
Little success against bosses
Not realize urbanities loyal to boss because boss help with problems
A few reform mayors address poverty:
Detroit’s Pingree
*
XX. Social Reform
Young, middle class, often female
Try to help newcomers:
with problems (housing)
and Americanize them (ed)
Settlement houses: Jane Addams and Hull House
Advocate government action
Vanguard of later Progressive reform
*
Hull House, 1885
First Social Settlement in Chicago
Classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities
(such as sewing), and many other subjects.
Volunteers acted as midwives, saved babies from
neglect, prepared the dead for burial, nursed the
sick, and sheltered domestic violence victims.
First Social Settlement with men and women
“residents”
First public baths in Chicago
First public playground in Chicago
Hull House, 1885
First gymnasium for the public in Chicago
First little theater in the United States
First citizenship preparation classes
First public kitchen in Chicago
First college extension courses in Chicago
First free art exhibits in Chicago
At the state level Hull House influenced legislation on child labor laws, occupational safety and health provisions, compulsory education, immigrant rights, and pension laws
XXI. The City Beautiful Movement
Architects try to make cities attractive and efficient
Parks, wider streets
Displace poor in process
Reformers seek to improve cities, but
Display naiveté and insensitivity
*
p. 536
As cities grew and became increasingly congested, children in immigrant and working-class neighborhoods used streets and sidewalks as play sites. Activities of youngsters such as these, playing unsupervised in front of a Polish saloon, prompted adults to create playgrounds, clubs, and other places where they could protect children’s safety and innocence and where they could ensure that play would be orderly and obedient.
XXII. Family Life
Family remain primary social unit
Help members with urban-industrial problems
Most households = nuclear family
Family size shrink with declining birth rate
Stages of life (youth, parenthood, old age) become more distinct
Number of unmarried people increase
Boarding = common practice
Holidays stress family (Mother’s Day, 1914)
*
p. 537
Amusement centers, such as Luna Park at Coney Island in New York City, became common and appealing features of the new leisure culture. One of the most popular Coney Island attractions was a ride called Shooting the Chutes, which resembled modern-day giant water slides. In 1904, Luna Park staged an outrageous stunt of an elephant sliding down the chute. The creature survived, apparently unfazed.
XXIII. The New Leisure
and Mass Culture
Leisure time expand; become big business
Sports: baseball and football for men; women’s basketball; croquet and cycling for both
Popular drama, musical comedy, vaudeville:
provide escape
reinforce bias
Movies, newspapers, magazines = profitable
Comstock try to stamp out “indecency”
Mass culture, but USA still pluralistic
*
p. 540
Eva Tanguay was one of the most popular vaudeville performers of her era. A buxom singer who billed herself as “the girl who made vaudeville famous,” Tanguay dressed in elaborate costumes and sang suggestive songs, many of which were written just for her and epitomized her carefree style.
p. 541
Dick Merriwell and his brother, Frank, were fictional heroes of hundreds of stories written in the early 1900s by Burt Standish (the pen name used by Gilbert Patten). In a series of adventures, mostly involving sports, these popular character models used their physical skills, valor, and moral virtue to lead by example, accomplish the impossible, and influence others to behave in an upstanding way.
Summary: Discuss Links to the World and Legacy
Link of USA and Japan via sports?
Baseball differences between Japan and USA?
As with urban USA, new links, yet diversity
Children and mass-produced toys as legacy?
Changing concepts of childhood?
Gender roles?
Links between toys and advertising/ mass media?
*
p. 538
Replete with bats, gloves, and uniforms, this Japanese baseball team of 1890 very much resembles its American counterpart of that era. The Japanese adopted baseball soon after Americans became involved in their country but also added their cultural qualities to the game.
*
*
“Houdini’s Escape Act.” High above Broadway and 46th Street in New York City, Harry Houdini, the world-famous immigrant-American escape artist, hangs upside down while bound in a straitjacket. Crowds watch breathlessly, wondering whether or how he will free himself. New people, bustling cities, mass entertainment, and the quest for freedom symbolized by Houdini’s act characterized American society at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth.
*
*
Electric trolley cars and other forms of mass transit enabled middle-class people such as these women and men to reside on the urban outskirts and ride into the city center for work, shopping, and entertainment.
*
*
Along with mass-produced consumer goods, such as clothing and household items, Sears, Roebuck and Company marketed architectural plans for middle-class housing. The “tiny house design,” published in one of the company’s catalogs, illustrates the layout and finished look of the kind of housing built on urban outskirts in the early twentieth century.
*
*
*
*
Fresh off the boat and wearing homeland clothing, immigrants pose for a photograph outside the federal immigration station at Ellis Island, offshore from New York City. Situated in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island immigration officials processed millions of newcomers such as these, asking them questions about their background and examining them for health problems.
*
Map 19.2: Sources of European-Born Population, 1900 and 1920.
In just a few decades, the proportion of European immigrants to the United States who came from northern and western Europe decreased (Ireland and Germany) or remained relatively stable (England and Scandinavia), while the proportion from eastern and southern Europe increased dramatically.
*
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.
In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.
*
The Caribbean as well as Europe sent immigrants to the United States. Hopeful that they were leaving their homeland of Guadeloupe for a better life, these women were perhaps unprepared for the disadvantages they faced as blacks, foreigners, and women.
*
*
Those who wished to Americanize immigrants believed that public schools could provide the best setting for assimilation. This 1917 poster from the Cleveland Board of Education and the Cleveland Americanization Committee used the languages most common to the new immigrants—Slovene, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, and Yiddish—as well as English, to invite newcomers to free classes where they could learn “the language of America” and “citizenship.”
*
*
*
*
*
Inner-city dwellers used not only indoor space as efficiently as possible, but also what little outdoor space was available to them. Scores of families living in this cramped block of six-story tenements in New York strung clotheslines behind the buildings. Notice that there is virtually no space between buildings—only rooms at the front and back received daylight and fresh air.
*
*
This scene, captured by a Philadelphia photographer sent to record the extent of trash that was littering city streets and sidewalks, illustrates the problems of disposal confronting inner-city, immigrant neighborhoods and the necessity for some form of public service to remove the refuse. Seemingly oblivious to the debris, the residents pose for the photographer.
(top) As the human and horse populations of cities grew, garbage, litter, and manure became nagging inconveniences and health hazards. In 1868, street sweepers, hired to clean the streets, often consisted of crews hired by political bosses and were required to report to a supervisor for morning roll call.
(bottom) By the early 1900s, the profession of sanitary engineer became an important one to the urban environment.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
As cities grew and became increasingly congested, children in immigrant and working-class neighborhoods used streets and sidewalks as play sites. Activities of youngsters such as these, playing unsupervised in front of a Polish saloon, prompted adults to create playgrounds, clubs, and other places where they could protect children’s safety and innocence and where they could ensure that play would be orderly and obedient.
*
Amusement centers, such as Luna Park at Coney Island in New York City, became common and appealing features of the new leisure culture. One of the most popular Coney Island attractions was a ride called Shooting the Chutes, which resembled modern-day giant water slides. In 1904, Luna Park staged an outrageous stunt of an elephant sliding down the chute. The creature survived, apparently unfazed.
*
Eva Tanguay was one of the most popular vaudeville performers of her era. A buxom singer who billed herself as “the girl who made vaudeville famous,” Tanguay dressed in elaborate costumes and sang suggestive songs, many of which were written just for her and epitomized her carefree style.
Dick Merriwell and his brother, Frank, were fictional heroes of hundreds of stories written in the early 1900s by Burt Standish (the pen name used by Gilbert Patten). In a series of adventures, mostly involving sports, these popular character models used their physical skills, valor, and moral virtue to lead by example, accomplish the impossible, and influence others to behave in an upstanding way.
*
Replete with bats, gloves, and uniforms, this Japanese baseball team of 1890 very much resembles its American counterpart of that era. The Japanese adopted baseball soon after Americans became involved in their country but also added their cultural qualities to the game.

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